Stalingrad Book Graphics in the Pre-War Period: 1935–1941
The article continues the study of the problem of artistic interpretation of the image of the city in the fine arts of Kuban, previously considered by the author, using the example of the Kuban capital. The subject of art criticism and semiotic analysis of visual texts are chamber urban spaces, the figurative characteristics of which have received the most vivid expression in the genre of urban (architectural) landscape. The increased interest of artists in capturing diverse mosaic texts of the urban environment, urban interiors and their fragments is due to the loss of part of the cultural heritage of the historical city center, a change in the architectural appearance of old buildings from traditional to more «modern». The use by masters of various techniques and materials, approaches, compositional and stylistic techniques, artistic tropes in painting and graphics stimulates the process of generating visual texts that form a detailed exhibition of urban images - streets, courtyards, modest mansions, elements of architectural decor. A significant place in it is occupied by architectural artistic metal, represented by the ornamental richness of forged roof canopies, which, together with other elements of the facade decoration of buildings, gives originality and unique flavor to the historical buildings of the «vanishing city», which is increasingly losing the cultural layer of its heritage. Chamber anonymous spaces still retain the «spirit of place», that unique sense of the originality / individuality of the environment, its involvement in a person’s worldview, which so attracts masters of different creative ranges.
Dmitry I. Gangur
The article is devoted to the problem of profile training of a modern specialist in the field of museology in the conditions of developing processes of development of cultural industries and digital transformation of modern mass culture and art. The cardinal changes taking place in modern museums, the growth of collaborative interactions in the conditions of multi-channel financing with the art business and cultural tourism, which dominates the modern tourism industry, require the development of new professional competencies, project system vision and thinking, digital culture. In recent decades, the problem of the transformation of museums into modern socio-communicative educational and leisure centers has occupied a significant place in the cultural scientific literature. At the same time, the problem of training modern specialists in the field of museum industries is becoming increasingly relevant due to the active transformation of the functions of museums in the conditions of rapid development of cultural industries. The article formulates the task of training specialists in the integrated collaborative profile of modern museum industries, focused on the manifestation of professional competencies not only in the field of museum industries, but also in the art business and cultural tourism. The article is based on the materials of the sociological study “Digital Competencies of Museum Staff”, organized and conducted by the Council for Digital Development of ICOM of Russia, the Association of Electronic Communications (RAEC), the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) with the participation of Microsoft representative office in Russia. The article justifies the need to form an integrated bachelor training profile for modern museum industries – “Cultural industries in museums, art business and cultural tourism”. The training of future museum specialists in this integrated profile in the field of cultural industries would solve several significant problems. Firstly, it would allow training in areas of cultural industries of future specialists close to the content of professional competencies. Secondly, it would expand the employment opportunities of graduates. Thirdly, it would allow developing a systematic vision and a systematic project approach among graduates and comprehensively approach the development of interconnected cultural industries – museum cultural industries, art business and the cultural tourism industry.
Anna V. Kudinova, Sergey .A. Morozov
In the collection of the State Hermitage Museum, a special place is occupied by dishes and salt cellars, created by local jewelers to serve bread and salt to the Russian emperors. The study of archival sources and the comparison of their information with objects from the museum's funds made it possible to identify the presentation salt cellar in the silver desk accessory in the form of the monument to Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov and peasant Ivan Susanin, which was called so in the museumˈs documents. The salt cellar appears to be a reduced copy of the monument, which was located on the central square of Kostroma until 1918. The exhibit lost its original name as well as information about the circumstances of its creation because itˈs moving between Russian museums in the second quarter of the 20th century. The history of the entry of the silver presentation salt cellar in the museum collection demonstrates the fate of most of the pre-revolutionary private collections after the October Revolution: many of them were nationalized and then partially depersonalized. Moreover, as a result of the research was found out the name of the master, who created the salt cellar, were clarified some circumstances of the presentation of this gift, and was given the history of its existence after the presentation to the emperor. The introduction into the scientific circulation of this museum exhibit, as well as the identification of the owner ofthe unknown master mark, enriches information on the history ofsilversmithing in the Russian Empire, expending ideas about the forms and artwork of the presentation items.
Aleksandra M. Lukianchikova
In the article, the authors take a cultural approach to the process of evolution of communication in the postmodern era. Using the method of comparative analysis, the article compares classical theories of communication and their transformation in the sociocultural space of our time. The authors use the works of postmodern researchers on this issue and trace in them those essential contradictions that lead to the depersonalization of the communication process itself. This approach determines both the relevance and scientific novelty of the article, since the very problem of communication in the postmodern information society is, on the one hand, discursive and contradictory in nature, and on the other, requires cultural scientific justification. The comparison of communication paradigms in the domestic and Western European traditions, the contradiction of these concepts, seems fruitful. The very definition of postmodernity as a constantly emerging phenomenon in history, as opposed to considering it as an independently evolving phenomenon (“post-postmodern”, “metamodern”, etc.), also deserves attention. The article provides a comparative analysis of the mentioned concepts of Western cultural scientists. The authors’ conclusion that such a substitution of concepts is inherent in postmodern consciousness in general, and currently in the process of de-theorizing humanities knowledge in particular, logically follows from the research conducted. The article is addressed to both culturologists and a wide range of interested researchers of the phenomenon of communication.
Mikhail K. Naidenko, Elizaveta A. Naidenko
Over the past decades, many studies have been carried out on children's drawings of the Great Patriotic War, most of them were dedicated to the memorable dates of the Great Patriotic War and devoted to the topic of preserving historical memory. The relevance of this study lies in the insufficient development of the topic of children's drawings of war from the point of view of the problem field of art criticism. Methods of art historical analysis make it possible to fill the gap and show the process of creating artistic images of children's war drawings to be more complex than it appears when using other scientific methods. The purpose of the study is to study the semantic features of children's drawings of war with Christian symbols. The author focuses on Christian symbols, dates and conditions for creating the drawings, and their existence. Using the example of the transformation of Christian symbols, the author shows possible algorithms for studying the semantics of children's drawings created in military conditions. The scientific novelty lies in the fact that children's drawings from the 1940s are presented for the first time. with Christian symbols, the role of children's drawings as a carrier of information about the artistic and creative process of children during the Great Patriotic War is determined, the importance of children's drawings as a mechanism of continuity is shown. The study uses a historical approach, which is combined with a formal-stylistic method of interpreting children's drawings and an iconographic method. Christian symbolism in children's drawings manifests itself in different ways, both indirectly and directly, but in general its use is spontaneous. Christian symbols in children's drawings do not indicate the religiosity of their authors. The process of forming artistic images took place with the participation of adult mentors in the conditions of anti-religious Soviet propaganda. In this connection, it follows that Christian symbols are undergoing a significant transformation. Despite the fact that the religious aspect is excluded from the artistic process, children's drawings demonstrate an effective mechanism for transmitting accumulated cultural, historical and artistic experience. Art historians still have a lot of work to do, on the one hand, to take a different look at the memorial function of children’s war drawings, on the other hand, to come closer to understanding the artistic and historical value of children’s drawings and their specificity in historical and visual contexts.
Oksana V. Khukhrina
The article examines issues related to the relationship between culture and mythology in cultural studies. Through the symbolic concept of cultural genesis, the formation of meaning-forming mythologies that influence stereotypes of meaning formation is shown. The mechanics of perception of reality by a person of culture is considered in its connection with the dynamics of mythology. The conceptual constructions of researchers connecting the themes of mythology and mythologization with the foundations of worldview and conscious reflection, such as F.V. Schelling, E. Durkheim, L. Levy-Bruhl, B. Malinovsky, J. Sorel, E. Cassirer, R. Barthes, C. Lévi-Strauss. The article also devotes space to studying the influence of mythology on the formation of neuroses, as consequences of cultural influence on human consciousness. A special place in the article is given to the mechanism of interdependence of the act of perception and the activity of internal mental structures, in their connection with the forms of social consciousness. The form of human existence in culture is considered through a situation when the utilitarian use of material begins to be combined with its sign function, in the process of which a picture of the world and the meaning of existence begin to appear. The development of this form of existence is considered in its dynamics – from archaic mythology to modern mythological paradigms. Based on the material presented, it is concluded that when researching in the field of the internal side of culture, it is necessary to take into account the schematics of human conceptualization of reality.
Sergei V. Kudryashov
The article considers the musical traditions of the South Urals in the context of common and special on the historical material. Based on the methodology "region through cities", the author considers Magnitogorsk as a type of industrial single-industry town characteristic of the region. Specific features of the mentality of the South Urals areal are conditioned by a highly specialized economy, concentration of urban life around the city-forming enterprise and secondary interest in artistic culture. The article shows that in the existing historical and cultural circumstances there is a lack of musical traditions and, at the same time, their forced formation. It is postulated that the simultaneous construction of the city in the material and artistic senses, which determined the specific relationship between urban society and art. The author finds a correlation between the mono-specificity of the city and its musical culture. In his opinion, the mono-city identity paradoxically allows to make music a generally accessible, rather than segmented type of leisure activity, since the cohesion of urban society makes any event a city-wide event. The author shows the contiguity and autonomy of the traditions of amateur and professional creativity, which feed each other, but do not directly determine each other. The author pays special attention to musical and educational institutions, showing the history of their formation and their important role in the development of the musical space of the region. The author concludes that the musical and educational institutions of the region are the most important for the development of music in the region. The conclusion is that musical traditions provide the South Urals with the image of a Eurasian platform of musical life and the potential for development based on modern cultural strategies.
Galina E. Gun
The article highlights the history of the revival of opera based on the biblical plot in the French musical theater of the early 19th century. Special attention is paid to the socio-political context of the period of the Great Bourgeois Revolution (1789–1799), which plunged the country into atheistic views. Thus, the author examines the reasons that provoked the persecution of Christianity and the prohibition of worship, identifies the factors that contributed to the formation of the so-called “religion of patriotism”, highlights the repertoire of the opera house, reflecting the revolutionary aspirations of that time. The author analyzes the activities of Napoleon Bonaparte related to the restoration of Catholicism in official rights. The work notes that the signing of the Concordat contributed to the active support of Napoleon and giving him a special status – church leaders saw the consul and the emperor as a messenger of God sent to save France from “wickedness”. The author also reveals Napoleon's attitude to the staging of the plots of the Holy Scriptures in the opera house. The article provides an overview of opera compositions on biblical themes created during the reign of Napoleon – these are the operas “Joseph in Egypt” by E. Megulya, “The Death of Adam” by J. Lesueur, “The Death of Abel” by R. Kreutzer and “The Oath of Jephthah” by J. Meyerbeer. The author provides information about the premiere staging of works, analyzes the interpretation of Old Testament plots and the genre designation of operas used by the author. In conclusion, conclusions are drawn about the features of these works and their anticipation of the principles of lyrical opera.
Olesya S. Mikhaylova
The article is devoted to the consideration of improvisation as the main constant of modern jazz art. Despite the changing functions and views associated with the phenomenon of improvisation, it is identified in almost every jazz composition, acting as a core element of the individual performing style of musicians. The key idea is the need to study the phenomenon of improvisation in the historical dynamics of the development of jazz styles. Special consideration is given to the actual works of domestic and foreign researchers, revealing the content specifics and structural features of both the basic and advanced functionality of the construction of an improvisational utterance. According to the author, improvisation is one of the foundations of jazz performance, the analysis of which provides opportunities for detailed disclosure of individual styles of jazz musicians. Artistic transformations affecting the semantics and structurality of improvisation are dictated by the general evolution of jazz styles and trends. The changes in the functions of thematic and improvisational material traced in jazz performance in the second half of the XX – beginning of the XXI centuries indicate the process of evolution of views and artistic representations of the professional jazz environment. The comparative element of the article is based on the study of interpretations of J. Gershwin's theme «Summertime», diverse in their aesthetic meaning, made by performers belonging to significant periods of jazz history. The analysis of these interpretations also confirms the important influence of improvisation on the evolution of jazz composition.
Elena V. Lubyanaya